31. An estimation of total antimicrobial usage in humans and animals in Vietnam
Abstract: The accurate assessment of antimicrobial use (AMU) requires relating quantities of active ingredients (AAIs) with population denominators. These data can be used to prioritize potential sources of selective pressure for antimicrobial resistance and to establish reduction targets. Here, we estimated AMU in Vietnam (human population 93.4 M in 2015), and compared it with European Union (EU) data (population 511.5 M in 2014). We extrapolated AMU data on each key animal species and humans from different published sources to calculate overall AMU (in
tonnes) in Vietnam. We then compared these data with published statistics on AMU in the European Union (EU). A total of 3838 t of antimicrobials were used in Vietnam, of which 2751 (71.7%) corresponded to animal use, and the remainder (1086 t; 28.3%) to human AMU. This equates to 261.7 mg and 247.3 mg per kg of human and animal biomass, compared with 122.0 mg and 151.5 mg in the EU. The greatest quantities of antimicrobials (in decreasing order) were used in pigs (41.7% of total use), humans (28.3%), aquaculture (21.9%) and chickens (4.8%). Combined
AMU in other species accounted for < 1.5%. These results are approximate and highlight the need to conduct targeted surveys to improve country-level estimates of AMU.
32. Carriage of the zoonotic organism Streptococcus suis in chicken flocks in Vietnam
Streptococcus suis infections are an emerging zoonotic agent causing severe disease in humans and a major pig pathogen worldwide. We investigated the colonization of S. suis in healthy chickens in different flocks (n = 59) as well as in‐contact pigs in farms with S. suis‐positive chickens (n = 44) in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. Streptococcus suis was isolated from 20 (33.9%) chicken flocks and from all pigs investigated. Chicken isolates formed a distinct genotypic cluster compared with pig and human strains, although two chicken isolates (10%) clustered with pig isolates. Chicken isolates had unusually high levels of resistance against tetracycline (100%), clindamycin (100%) and erythromycin (95%); and intermediate resistance against penicillin (35%) and ceftriaxone (15%). Our findings suggest that chickens may potentially represent a source of S. suis infection to in‐contact humans and pigs.
33. Characterizing Antimicrobial Resistance in Chicken Pathogens: A Step towards Improved Antimicrobial Stewardship in Poultry Production in Vietnam
In the Mekong Delta of Vietnam, farmers use large quantities of antimicrobials to raise small-scale chicken flocks, often including active ingredients regarded of “critical importance’” by the World Health Organization. Due to limitations in laboratory capacity, the choice of antimicrobials normally does not follow any empirical criteria of effectiveness. The aim of this study was to highlight non-critically important antimicrobials against which chicken pathogens are likely to be susceptible as a basis for treatment guidelines. Microtiter broth dilution method was performed to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 12 commonly used antimicrobials for 58 isolates, including Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) (n = 22), Gallibacterium anatis (n = 19), and Avibacterium endocarditidis (n = 17). Unfortunately, internationally accepted breakpoints for resistance in these organisms do not exist. We drew tentative epidemiological cut-offs (TECOFFs) for those antimicrobial-pathogen combinations where MIC distributions suggested the presence of a distinct non-wild-type population. Based on the observed results, doxycycline would be the drug of choice for A.endocarditidis (11.8% presumptive non-wild type) and G. anatis infections (5.3% presumptive non-wild type). A total of 13.6% ORT isolates were non-wild type with regards to oxytetracycline, making it the drug of choice against this pathogen. This study illustrates the challenges in interpreting susceptibility testing results and the need to establish internationally accepted breakpoints for veterinary pathogens. The full article can be accessed here: Download
34. The role of animals as a source of antimicrobial resistant nontyphoidal Salmonella causing invasive and non-invasive human disease in Vietnam
Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) are associated with both diarrhea and bacteremia. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is common in NTS in low-middle income countries, but the major source(s) of AMR NTS in humans are not known. Here, we aimed to assess the role of animals as a source of AMR in human NTS infections in Vietnam. We retrospectively combined and analyzed 672 NTS human and animal isolates from four studies in southern Vietnam and compared serovars, sequence types (ST), and AMR profiles. We generated a population structure of circulating organisms and aimed to attribute sources of AMR in NTS causing invasive and noninvasive disease in humans using Bayesian multinomial mixture models.
Among 672 NTS isolates, 148 (22%) originated from human blood, 211 (31%) from human stool, and 313 (47%) from animal stool. The distribution of serovars, STs, and AMR profiles differed among sources; serovars Enteritidis, Typhimurium, and Weltevreden were the most common in human blood, human stool, and animals, respectively. We identified an association between the source of NTS and AMR profile; the majority of AMR isolates were isolated from human blood (p < 0.001). Modelling by ST-AMR profile found chickens and pigs were likely the major sources of AMR NTS in human blood and stool, respectively; but unsampled sources were found to be a major contributor.
Antimicrobial use in food animals is hypothesized to play role in the emergence of AMR in human pathogens. Our cross-sectional population-based approach suggests a significant overlap between AMR in NTS in animals and humans, but animal NTS does explain the full extent of AMR in human NTS infections in Vietnam.
35. Reducing Antimicrobial Usage in Small-Scale Chicken Farms in Vietnam: A 3-Year Intervention Study
Indiscriminate antimicrobial use (AMU) in animal production is a driver of antimicrobial resistance globally. There is a need to define sustainable interventions to reduce AMU in small-scale production systems, which currently represent the most widespread farming systems in South East Asia and many low- and middle-income countries. We conducted a before-and-after intervention study on a random sample of small-scale chicken farms in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam from 2016 to 2019. The study included a baseline followed by an intervention phase where farmers were provided with regular veterinary advice on flock health and husbandry, as well as antimicrobial replacement products. Of 102 recruited farms (raising >100 chickens per flock cycle), thirty-five (34.2%) entered the intervention phase, whilst the rest stopped raising chickens, mainly due to suboptimal flock performance. Through the implementation of our intervention, chicken flocks reduced levels of AMU by 66% [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 0.34; p = 0.002) from a baseline of 343.4 Animal Daily Doses per 1,000 chicken-days and decreased weekly mortality by 40% (adjusted HR = 0.60; p = 0.005) from a baseline mortality of 1.60 per 100 birds. Chicken bodyweight increased by 100 g (p = 0.002) in intervention flocks. Our findings demonstrate that the provision of veterinary advice can achieve substantial reductions in AMU in small-scale production systems without compromising flock health and productivity.